EARLY EUROPEAN HISTORY
EARLY EUROPEAN HISTORY
"There is no part of history so generally useful as that which relates to
the progress of the human mind the gradual improvement of reason the
successive advances of science the vicissitudes of learning and
ignorance which are the light and darkness of thinking beings the
extinction and resuscitation of arts and the revolutions of the
--SAMUEL JOHNSON _Rasselas_.
This book aims to furnish a concise and connected account of human
progress during ancient medieval and early modern times. It should meet
the requirements of those high schools and preparatory schools where
ancient history as a separate discipline is being supplanted by a more
extended course introductory to the study of recent times and contemporary
problems. Such a course was first outlined by the Regents of the
University of the State of New York in their _Syllabus for Secondary
Schools_ issued in 1910.
Since the appearance of the Regents' _Syllabus_ the Committee of Five of
the American Historical Association has made its _Report_ (1911)
suggesting a rearrangement of the curriculum which would permit a year's
work in English and Continental history. Still more recently the Committee
on Social Studies of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary
Education in its _Report_ (1916) to the National Education Association
has definitely recommended the division of European history into two
parts of which the first should include ancient and Oriental
civilization English and Continental history to approximately the end of
the seventeenth century and the period of American exploration.
The first twelve chapters of the present work are based upon the author's
_Ancient History_ published four years ago. In spite of many omissions
it has been possible to follow without essential modification the plan of
the earlier volume. A number of new maps and illustrations have been added
to these chapters.
The selection of collateral reading always a difficult problem in the
secondary school is doubly difficult when so much ground must be covered
in a single course. The author ventures therefore to call attention to
his _Readings in Ancient History_. Its purpose in the words of the
preface is "to provide immature pupils with a variety of extended
unified and interesting extracts on matters which a textbook treats with
necessary though none the less deplorable condensation." A companion
volume entitled _Readings in Medieval and Modern History_ will be
published shortly. References to both books are inserted in footnotes.
At the end of what has been a long and engrossing task it becomes a
pleasant duty to acknowledge the help which has been received from
teachers in school and college. Various chapters either in manuscript or
in the proofs have been read by Professor James M. Leake of Bryn Mawr
College; Professor J. C. Hildt of Smith College; Very Rev. Patrick J.
Healy Professor of Church History in the Catholic University of America;
Professor E. F. Humphrey of Trinity College; Dr. James Sullivan Director
of the Division of Archives and History State Dept. of Education of New
York; Constantine E. McGuire Assistant Secretary General International
High Commission Washington; Miss Margaret E. McGill of the Newton
(Mass.) High School; and Miss Mabel Chesley of the Erasmus Hall High
School Brooklyn. The author would also express appreciation of the labors
of the cartographers artists and printers to whose accuracy and skill
every page of the book bears witness.
LINCOLN NEBRASKA February 1917
[Illustration: ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL GEMS.
1 Steatite from Crete two lions with forefeet on a pedestal above
2 Sardonyx from Elis a goddess holding up a goat by the horns
3 Rock crystal a bearded Triton
4 Carnelian a youth playing a trigonon
5 Chalcedony from Athens a Bacchante
6 Sard a woman reading a manuscript roll before her a lyre
7 Carnelian Theseus
8 Chalcedony portrait head Hellenistic Age
9 Aquamarine portrait of Julia daughter of the emperor Titus
10 Chalcedony portrait head Hellenistic Age
11 Carnelian bust portrait of the Roman emperor Decius
12 Beryl portrait of Julia Domna wife of the emperor Septimius
13 Sapphire head of the Madonna
14 Carnelian the judgment of Paris Renaissance work
15 Rock crystal Madonna with Jesus and St. Joseph probably Norman
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
LIST OF MAPS
LIST OF PLATES
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY
I. THE AGES BEFORE HISTORY.
1. The Study of History
2. Prehistoric Peoples
3. Domestication of Animals and Plants
4. Writing and the Alphabet
5. Primitive Science and Art
6. Historic Peoples
II. THE LANDS AND PEOPLES OF THE EAST TO ABOUT 500 B.C.
7. Physical Asia
8. Babylonia and Egypt
9. The Babylonians and the Egyptians
10. The Phoenicians and the Hebrews
11. The Assyrians
12. The World Empire of Persia
III. ORIENTAL CIVILIZATION.
13. Social Classes
14. Economic Conditions
15. Commerce and Trade Routes
16. Law and Morality
18. Literature and Art
19. Science and Education
IV. THE LANDS OF THE WEST AND THE RISE OF GREECE TO ABOUT 500 B.C.
20. Physical Europe
21. Greece and the Aegean
22. The Aegean Age (to about 1100 B.C.)
23. The Homeric Age (about 1100-750 B.C.)
24. Early Greek Religion
25. Religious Institutions--Oracles and Games
26. The Greek City-State
27. The Growth of Sparta (to 500 B.C.)
28. The Growth of Athens (to 500 B.C.)
29. Colonial Expansion of Greece (about 750-500 B.C.)
30. Bonds of Union among the Greeks
V. THE GREAT AGE OF THE GREEK REPUBLICS TO 362 B.C.
31. The Perils of Hellas
32. Expeditions of Darius against Greece
33. Xerxes and the Great Persian War
34. Athens under Themistocles Aristides and Cimon
35. Athens under Pericles
36. The Peloponnesian War 431-404 B.C.
37. The Spartan and Theban Supremacies 404-362 B.C.
38. Decline of the City-State
VI. MINGLING OF EAST AND WEST AFTER 359 B.C.
39. Philip and the Rise of Macedonia
40. Demosthenes and the End of Greek Freedom
41. Alexander the Great
42. Conquest of Persia and the Far East 334-323 B.C.
43. The Work of Alexander
44. Hellenistic Kingdoms and Cities
45. The Hellenistic Age
46. The Graeco-Oriental World
VII. THE RISE OF ROME TO 264 B.C.
47. Italy and Sicily
48. The Peoples of Italy
49. The Romans
50. Early Roman Society
51. Roman Religion
52. The Roman City State
53. Expansion of Rome over Italy 509 (?)-264 B.C.
54. Italy under Roman Rule
55. The Roman Army
VIII. THE GREAT AGE OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC 264-31 B.C.
56. The Rivals Rome and Carthage 264-218 B.C.
57. Hannibal and the Great Punic War 218-201 B.C.
58. Roman Supremacy in the West and in the East 201-133 B.C.
59. The Mediterranean World under Roman Rule
60. The Gracchi
61. Marius and Sulla
62. Pompey and Caesar
63. The Work of Caesar
64. Antony and Octavian
65. The End of an Epoch
IX. THE EARLY EMPIRE: THE WORLD UNDER ROMAN RULE 31 B.C.-l80 A.D.
66. Augustus 31 B.C.-l4 A.D.
67. The Successors of Augustus 14-96 A.D.
68. The "Good Emperors" 96-180 A.D.
69. The Provinces of the Roman Empire
70. The Roman Law and the Latin Language
71. The Municipalities of the Roman Empire
72. Economic and Social Conditions in the First and Second Centuries
73. The Graeco-Roman World
X. THE LATER EMPIRE: CHRISTIANITY IN THE ROMAN WORLD 180-395 A.D.
74. The "Soldier Emperors" 180-284 A.D.
75. The "Absolute Emperors" 284-395 A.D.
76. Economic and Social Conditions in the Third and Fourth Centuries
77. The Preparation for Christianity
78. Rise and Spread of Christianity
79. The Persecutions
80. Triumph of Christianity
81. Christian Influence on Society
XI. THE GERMANS TO 476 A.D.
82. Germany and the Germans
83. Breaking of the Danube Barrier
84. Breaking of the Rhine Barrier
85. Inroads of the Huns
86. End of the Roman Empire in the West 476 A.D.
87. Germanic Influence on Society
XII. CLASSICAL CIVILIZATION.
88. The Classical City
89. Education and the Condition of Children
90. Marriage and the Position of Women
91. The Home and Private Life
94. Greek Literature
95. Greek Philosophy
96. Roman Literature
97. Greek Architecture
98. Greek Sculpture
99. Roman Architecture and Sculpture
100. Artistic Athens
101. Artistic Rome
XIII. WESTERN EUROPE DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 476-962 A.D.
102. The Ostrogoths in Italy 488-553 A.D.
103. The Lombards in Italy 568-774 A.D.
104. The Franks under Clovis and His Successors
105. The Franks under Charles Martel and Pepin the Short
106. The Reign of Charlemagne 768-814 A.D.
107. Charlemagne and the Revival of the Roman Empire 800 A.D.
108. Disruption of Charlemagne's Empire 814-870 A.D.
109. Germany under Saxon Kings 919-973 A.D.
110. Otto the Great and the Restoration of the Roman Empire 962 A.D.
111. The Anglo-Saxons in Britain 449-839 A.D.
112. Christianity in the British Isles
113. The Fusion of Germans and Romans
XIV. EASTERN EUROPE DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 395-1095 A.D.
114. The Roman Empire in the East
115. The Reign of Justinian 527-565 A.D.
116. The Empire and its Asiatic Foes
117. The Empire and its Foes in Europe
118. Byzantine Civilization
XV. THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN THE EAST AND IN THE WEST TO 1054 A.D.
120. Development of the Christian Church
121. Eastern Christianity
122. Western Christianity: Rise of the Papacy
123. Growth of the Papacy
125. Life and Work of the Monks
126. Spread of Christianity over Europe
127. Separation of Eastern and Western Christianity
128. The Greek Church
129. The Roman Church
XVI. THE ORIENT AGAINST THE OCCIDENT: RISE AND SPREAD OF ISLAM
130. Arabia and the Arabs
131. Mohammed: Prophet and Statesman 622-632 A.D.
132. Islam and the Koran
133. Expansion of Islam in Asia and Egypt
134. Expansion of Islam in North Africa and Spain
135. The Caliphate and its Disruption 632-1058 A.D.
136. Arabian Civilization
137. The Influence of Islam
XVII. THE NORTHMEN AND THE NORMANS TO 1066 A.D.
138. Scandinavia and the Northmen
139. The Viking Age
140. Scandinavian Heathenism
141. The Northmen in the West
142. The Northmen in the East
143. Normandy and the Normans
144. Conquest of England by the Danes; Alfred the Great
145. Norman Conquest of England; William the Conqueror
146. Results of the Norman Conquest
147. Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily
148. The Normans in European History
149. Rise of Feudalism
150. Feudalism as a System of Local Government
151. Feudal Justice
152. Feudal Warfare
153. The Castle and Life of the Nobles
154. Knighthood and Chivalry
155. Feudalism as a System of Local Industry
156. The Village and Life of the Peasants
158. Decline of Feudalism
XIX THE PAPACY AND THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 962-1273 A.D.
159. Characteristics of the Medieval Church
160. Church Doctrine and Worship
161. Church Jurisdiction
162. The Secular Clergy
163. The Regular Clergy
164. The Friars
165. Power of the Papacy
166. Popes and Emperors 962-1122 A.D.
167. Popes and Emperors 1122-1273 A.D.
168. Significance of the Medieval Church
XX. THE OCCIDENT AGAINST THE ORIENT THE CRUSADES 1095-1291 A.D.
169. Causes of the Crusades
170. First Crusade 1095-1099 A.D.
171. Crusaders' States in Syria
172. Second Crusade 1147-1149 A.D. and Third Crusade 1189-1192 A.D.
173. Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire of Constantinople
174. Results of the Crusades
XXI THE MONGOLS AND THE OTTOMAN TURKS TO 1453 A.D.
175. The Mongols
176. Conquests of the Mongols 1206-1405 A.D.
177. The Mongols in China and India
178. The Mongols in Eastern Europe
179. The Ottoman Turks and their Conquests 1227-1453 A.D.
180. The Ottoman Turks in Southeastern Europe
XXII. EUROPEAN NATIONS DURING THE LATER MIDDLE AGES
181. Growth of the Nations
182. England under William the Conqueror 1066-1087 A.D. the Norman
183. England under Henry II 1154-1189 A.D. Royal Justice and the
184. The Great Charter 1215 A.D.
185. Parliament during the Thirteenth Century
186. Expansion of England under Edward I 1272-1307 A.D.
187. Unification of France 987-1328 A.D.
188. The Hundred Years' War between England and France 1337-1453 A.D.
189. The Unification of Spain (to 1492 A.D.)
190. Austria and the Swiss Confederation 1273-1499 A.D.
191. Expansion of Germany
XXIII. EUROPEAN CITIES DURING THE LATER MIDDLE AGES
192. Growth of the Cities
193. City Life
194. Civic Industry--the Guilds
195. Trade and Commerce
196. Money and Banking
197. Italian Cities
198. German Cities the Hanseatic League
199. The Cities of Flanders
XXIV. MEDIEVAL CIVILIZATION
200. Formation of National Languages
201. Development of National Literatures
202. Romanesque and Gothic Architecture the Cathedrals
203. Education the Universities
205. Science and Magic
206. Popular Superstitions
207. Popular Amusements and Festivals
208. Manners and Customs
XXV. THE RENAISSANCE
209. Meaning of the Renaissance
210. Revival of Learning in Italy
211. Paper and Printing
212. Revival of Art in Italy
213. Revival of Learning and Art beyond Italy
214. The Renaissance in Literature
215. The Renaissance in Education
216. The Scientific Renaissance
217. The Economic Renaissance
XXVI. GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERY AND COLONIZATION
218. Medieval Geography
219. Aids to Exploration
220. To the Indies Eastward--Prince Henry and Da Gama
221. The Portuguese Colonial Empire
222. To the Indies Westward: Columbus and Magellan
223. The Indians
224. Spanish Explorations and Conquests in America
225. The Spanish Colonial Empire
226. French and English Explorations in America
227. The Old World and the New
XXVII. THE REFORMATION AND THE RELIGIOUS WARS 1517-1648 A.D.
228. Decline of the Papacy
229. Heresies and Heretics
230. Martin Luther and the Beginning of the Reformation in Germany
231. Charles V and the Spread of the German Reformation 1519-1556 A.D.
232. The Reformation in Switzerland: Zwingli and Calvin
233. The English Reformation 1533-1558 A.D.
234. The Protestant Sects
235. The Catholic Counter Reformation
236. Spain under Philip II 1556-1598 A.D.
237. Revolt of the Netherlands
238. England under Elizabeth 1558-1603 A.D.
239. The Huguenot Wars in France
240. The Thirty Years' War 1618-1648 A.D.
XXVIII. ABSOLUTISM IN FRANCE AND ENGLAND 1603-1715 A.D.
241. The Divine Right of Kings
242. The Absolutism of Louis XIV 1661-1715 A.D.
243. France under Louis XIV
244. The Wars of Louis XIV