W.J. JACKMAN AND THOS. H. RUSSELL
A Practical Book Which Shows in Illustrations
Working Plans and Text How to Build and Navigate the
W.J. Jackman M.E.
Author of "A B C of the Motorcycle"
"Facts for Motorists" etc. etc.
THOS. H. RUSSELL A.M. M.E.
Charter Member of the Aero Club of Illinois Author of
"History of the Automobile" "Motor Boats: Construction
and Operation" etc. etc.
WITH INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER BY
OCTAVE CHANUTE C.E.
President Aero Club of Illinois
This book is written for the guidance of the novice in
aviation--the man who seeks practical information as to
the theory construction and operation of the modern
flying machine. With this object in view the wording
is intentionally plain and non-technical. It contains some
propositions which so far as satisfying the experts is
concerned might doubtless be better stated in technical
terms but this would defeat the main purpose of its preparation.
Consequently while fully aware of its shortcomings
in this respect the authors have no apologies to make.
In the stating of a technical proposition so it may be
clearly understood by people not versed in technical matters
it becomes absolutely necessary to use language
much different from that which an expert would employ
and this has been done in this volume.
No man of ordinary intelligence can read this book
without obtaining a clear comprehensive knowledge of
flying machine construction and operation. He will
learn not only how to build equip and manipulate an
aeroplane in actual flight but will also gain a thorough
understanding of the principle upon which the suspension
in the air of an object much heavier than the air is made
This latter feature should make the book of interest
even to those who have no intention of constructing or
operating a flying machine. It will enable them to better
understand and appreciate the performances of the
daring men like the Wright brothers Curtiss Bleriot
Farman Paulhan Latham and others whose bold experiments
have made aviation an actuality.
For those who wish to engage in the fascinating pastime
of construction and operation it is intended as a
reliable practical guide.
It may be well to explain that the sub-headings in the
articles by Mr. Chanute were inserted by the authors
without his knowledge. The purpose of this was merely
to preserve uniformity in the typography of the book.
This explanation is made in justice to Mr. Chanute.
Octave Chanute "the father of the modern flying machine"
died at his home in Chicago on November 23 1910
at the age of 72 years. His last work in the interest of
aviation was to furnish the introductory chapter to the first
edition of this volume and to render valuable assistance
in the handling of the various subjects. He even made the
trip from his home to the office of the publishers one
inclement day last spring to look over the proofs of the
book and at his suggestion several important changes were
made. All this was "a labor of love" on Mr. Chanute's
part. He gave of his time and talents freely because he
was enthusiastic in the cause of aviation and because he
knew the authors of this book and desired to give them
material aid in the preparation of the work--a favor that
was most sincerely appreciated.
The authors desire to make acknowledgment of many courtesies
in the way of valuable advice information etc. extended by Mr.
Octave Chanute C. E. Mr. E. L. Jones Editor of Aeronautics
and the publishers of the New England Automobile Journal and
I. Evolution of the Two-Surface Flying Machine
Introductory Chapter by Octave Chanute C. E.
II. Theory Development and Use
Origin of the Aeroplane--Developments by Chanute
and the Wrights--Practical Uses and Limits.
III. Mechanical Bird Action
What the Motor Does--Puzzle in Bird Soaring.
IV. Various Forms of Flying Machines
Helicopters Ornithopters and Aeroplanes--
Monoplanes Biplanes and Triplanes.
V. Constructing a Gliding Machine
Plans and Materials Required--Estimate of Cost--
Sizes and Preparation of Various Parts--Putting the
VI. Learning to Fly
How to Use the Glider--Effect of Body Movements
--Rules for Beginners--Safest Place to Glide.
VII. Putting On the Rudder
Its Construction Application and Use.
VIII. The Real Flying Machine
Surface Area Required--Proper Size of Frame and
Auxiliaries--Installation of Motor--Cost of
IX. Selection of the Motor
Essential Features--Multiplicity of Cylinders--Power
Required--Kind and Action of Propellers--Placing
of the Motor
X. Proper Dimensions of Machines
Figuring Out the Details--How to Estimate Load
Capacity--Distribution of the Weight--Measurements
of Leading Machines.
XI. Plane and Rudder Control
Various Methods in Use--Wheels and Hand and
XII. How to Use the Machine
Rules of Leading Aviators--Rising from the Ground
--Reasonable Altitude--Preserving Equilibrium--
Learning to Steer.
XIII. Peculiarities of Aeroplane Power
Pressure of the Wind--How to Determine Upon
Power--Why Speed Is Required--Bird find Flying
XIV. About Wind Currents Etc.
Uncertainty of Direct Force--Trouble With Gusty
Currents--Why Bird Action Is Imitated.
XV. The Element of Danger
Risk Small Under Proper Conditions--Two Fields
of Safety--Lessons in Recent Accidents.
XVI. Radical Changes Being Made
Results of Recent Experiments--New Dimensions
--Increased Speed--The One Governing Rule.
XVII. Some of the New Designs
? Automatic Control of Plane Stability--Inventor
Herring's Devices--Novel Ideas of Students.
XVIII. Demand for Flying Machines
Wonderful Results in a Year--Factories Over-
crowded with Orders.
XIX. Law of the Airship
Rights of Property Owners--Some Legal
Peculiarities--Danger of Trespass.
XX. Soaring Flight
XXI. Flying Machines vs. Balloons
XXII. Problems of Aerial Fligh
XXIII. Amateurs May Use Wright Patents
XXIV. Hints on Propeller Construction
XXV. New Motors and Devices
XXVI. Monoplanes Triplanes Multiplanes
XXVII. Records of Various Kinds
FLYING MACHINES: CONSTRUCTION and OPERATION
EVOLUTION OF TWO-SURFACE FLYING MACHINE.
By Octave Chanute.
I am asked to set forth the development of the "two-
surface" type of flying machine which is now used with
modifications by Wright Brothers Farman Delagrange
Herring and others.
 Now dead.
This type originated with Mr. F. H. Wenham who
patented it in England in 1866 (No. 1571) taking out
provisional papers only. In the abridgment of British
patent Aeronautical Specifications (1893) it is described
"Two or more aeroplanes are arranged one above the
other and support a framework or car containing the
motive power. The aeroplanes are made of silk or canvas
stretched on a frame by wooden rods or steel ribs.
When manual power is employed the body is placed
horizontally and oars or propellers are actuated by the
arms or legs.
"A start may be obtained by lowering the legs and
running down hill or the machine may be started from
a moving carriage. One or more screw propellers may
be applied for propelling when steam power is employed.
On June 27 1866 Mr. Wenham read before the
"Aeronautical Society of Great Britain" then recently
organized the ablest paper ever presented to that society and
thereby breathed into it a spirit which has continued to
this day. In this paper he described his observations of
birds discussed the laws governing flight as to the
surfaces and power required both with wings and screws
and he then gave an account of his own experiments with
models and with aeroplanes of sufficient size to carry
the weight of a man.
Second Wenham Aeroplane.