THE ESPERANTO TEACHER
THE ESPERANTO TEACHER
(B.E.A. PUBLICATIONS FUND--No. 3).
All profits from the sale of this book are devoted to the
propaganda of Esperanto.
BRITISH ESPERANTO ASSOCIATION (Incorporated)
17 Hart Street W.C.I.
* * * * *
Perhaps to no one is Esperanto of more service than to the
non-grammarian. It gives him for a minimum expenditure of time and money
a valuable insight into the principles of grammar and the meaning of
words while enabling him after only a few months of study to get into
communication with his fellow men in all parts of the world.
To place these advantages within easy reach of all is the aim of this
little book. Written by an experienced teacher revised by Mr. E. A.
Millidge and based on the exercises of Dr. Zamenhof himself it merits
the fullest confidence of the student and may be heartily commended to
all into whose hands it may come.
W. W. PADFIELD.
This little book has been prepared in the hope of helping those who
having forgotten the lessons in grammar which they received at school
find some difficulty in learning Esperanto from the existing textbooks.
It is hoped it will be found useful not only for solitary students but
also for class work.
The exercises are taken chiefly from the "Ekzercaro" of Dr. Zamenhof.
The compiler also acknowledges her indebtedness especially to the
"Standard Course of Esperanto" by Mr. G. W. Bullen and to the
"Esperanto Grammar and Commentary" by Major-General Geo. Cox and while
accepting the whole responsibility for all inaccuracies and crudenesses
she desires to thank all who have helped in the preparation and
foremost among them Mr. W. W. Padfield of Ipswich for advice and
encouragement throughout the work and to Mr. E. A. Millidge for his
unfailing kindness and invaluable counsel and help in its preparation
MANNER OF USING THE BOOK.
The student is strongly advised to cultivate the habit of thinking in
Esperanto from the very beginning of the study. To do this he should
try to realise the idea mentally without putting it into English words
e.g. when learning the word "rozo" or "kolombo" let him bring the
object itself before his mind's eye instead of repeating "'rozo'
rose; 'kolombo' pigeon"; or with the sentence "'la suno brilas' the
sun shines" let him picture the sun shining. Having studied the lesson
and learned the vocabulary he should read the exercise repeating each
sentence aloud until he has become familiar with it and can pronounce
it freely. Then turning to the English translation at the end of the
book he should write the exercise into Esperanto compare it with
the original and re-learn and re-write if necessary. Although this
method may require a little more time and trouble at first the greater
facility gained in speaking the language will well repay the outlay.
After mastering this book the student should take some reader such
as "Unua Legolibro" by Dr. Kabe and then proceed to the "Fundamenta
Krestomatio" the standard work on Esperanto by Dr. Zamenhof.
A very good Esperanto-English vocabulary is to be found in the
"Esperanto Key" 1/2d. or in "The Whole of Esperanto for a Penny."
THE ORIGIN AND AIM OF ESPERANTO.
A few words as to the origin of Esperanto will perhaps not be out
of place here. The author of the language Dr. Ludovic Zamenhof a
Polish Jew was born on December 3rd 1859 at Bielovstok in Poland
a town whose inhabitants are of four distinct races Poles Russians
Germans and Jews each with their own language and customs and
often at open enmity with each other. Taught at home that all men are
brethren Zamenhof found everywhere around him outside the denial of
this teaching and even as a child came to the conclusion that the races
hated because they could not understand each other. Feeling keenly
too the disabilities under which his people specially laboured being
cut off by their language from the people among whom they lived while
too proud to learn the language of their persecutors he set himself to
invent a language which should be neutral and therefore not require any
sacrifice of pride on the part of any race.
Interesting as is the story of Zamenhof's attempts and difficulties it
must suffice here to say that at the end of 1878 the new language was
sufficiently advanced for him to impart it to schoolfellows like-minded
with himself and on December 17th of that year they feted its birth
and sang a hymn in the new language celebrating the reign of unity and
peace which should be brought about by its means "All mankind must
be united in one family." But the enthusiasm of its first followers
died down under the derision they encountered and for nine years more
Zamenhof worked in secret at his language translating composing
writing original articles improving polishing till in 1887 he
published his first book under the title of "An International Language
by Dr. Esperanto." ("Esperanto" means "one who hopes").
That the idea which impelled the young Zamenhof to undertake such a work
is still the mainspring of his devotion to the cause is shown by the
following extract from his opening speech at the second International
Esperanto Congress in 1906:--"We are all conscious that it is not
the thought of its practical utility which inspires us to work for
Esperanto but only the thought of the important and holy idea which
underlies an international language. This idea you all know is that
of: brotherhood and justice among all peoples." And again in his
presidential address at the third Esperanto Congress held this year
(1907) at Cambridge he said "We are constantly repeating that we do
not wish to interfere in the internal life of the nations but only to
build a bridge between the peoples. The ideal aim of Esperantists never
until now exactly formulated but always clearly felt is: To establish
a neutral foundation on which the various races of mankind may hold
peaceful brotherly intercourse without intruding on each other their
Sur neuxtrala lingva fundamento
Komprenante unu la alian
La popoloj faros en konsento
Unu grandan rondon familian.
(On the foundation of a neutral language
Understanding one another
The peoples will form in agreement
One great family circle).
SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.
In Esperanto each letter has only one sound and each sound is
represented in only one way. The words are pronounced exactly as spelt
every letter being sounded.
Those CONSONANTS which in English have one simple sound only are exactly
the same in Esperanto; they are--b d f k l m n p r t v z (r
must be well rolled).
q w x y are not used.
c g h s which in English represent more than one sound and j are
also used with the mark ^--
c cx g gx h hx j jx s sx.
c - (whose two English sounds are represented by k and s) has the sound
of TS as in iTS TSar.
cx - like CH TCH in CHurCH maTCH.
g - hard as in Go GiG Gun.
gx - soft as in Gentle Gem or like J in Just Jew.
h - well breathed as in Horse Home How.
hx - strongly breathed and in the throat as in the Scotch word loCH.
(Ask any Scotsman to pronounce it). Hx occurs but seldom. It is the
Irish GH in louGH and the Welsh CH.
j - like Y in Yes You or J in halleluJah fJord.
jx - like S in pleaSure or the French J as in deJeuner Jean d'Arc.
s - like SS in aSS leSS never like S in roSe.
sx - like SH in SHe SHall SHip or S in Sugar Sure.
In newspapers etc. which have not the proper type cx gx hx jx sx
are often replaced by ch gh hh jh sh or by c' g' h' j' s' and
ux by u.
ux - is also a consonant and has the sound of W in We as EUXropo or U
The VOWELS a e i o u have not the English but the Continental
a - always like A in Ah! or in tArt.
e - like E in bEnd but broader like E in thEre.
i - is a sound between EE in mEEt and I in Is.
o - like O in fOr or in the Scottish NO or AU in AUght.
u - like OO in bOOt pOOr.
a e i o u are all simple sounds that is the mouth is kept in one
position while they are being sounded. In learning them lengthen them
out and be careful not to alter the position of the mouth however long
they are drawn out. In the compound sounds given below the shape of the
mouth changes; to get the correct pronunciation sound each letter fully
and distinctly gradually bringing them closer until they run together
when they become almost as follows:--
aj - nearly like AI in AIsle or I in nIce fIne.
ej - nearly like EI in vEIn.
oj - nearly like OY in bOY or OI in vOId.
uj - nearly like UJ in hallelUJah.
aux - like AHW or nearly OU in hOUse pronounced broadly haOUse.
eux - like EHW or EY W in thEY Were AYW in wAYWard.
Practise saying aja eja oja uja auxa euxa several times quickly.
Then gradually drop the final a.
The accent or stress is always placed on the syllable before the last
as es-PE-ro es-pe-RAN-to es-pe-ran-TIS-to es-pe-ran-tis-TI-no; JU-na
ju-NU-lo ju-nu-LA-ro. All the syllables must be clearly pronounced not
EXERCISE IN PRONOUNCIATION.
a - (as in bAth) PAT-ra LA-na a-GRA-bla mal-VAR-ma KLA-ra
e - (as in bEnd) BE-la mEm fe-NES-tro ven-DRE-do tre-E-ge
i - (as in sEE) mi I-li i-MI-ti vi-ZI-ti TRIN-ki in-SIS-ti.
o - (as in fOr) HO-mo RO-zo ko-LOM-bo DOR-mo (the R rolled) MOR-to
u - (as in bOOt) U-nu dum BRU-lu sur-TU-to vul-TU-ro mur-MUR-i.
aj - (as in nIce) ajn kaj rAJ-to taj-LO-ro FAJ-ro BE-laj.
ej - (as in plAY) VEJ-no HEJ-mo plej HEJ-to.
oj - (as in bOY) PAT-roj FOJ-no HO-mojn KOJ-no SOJ-lo KON-koj.
uj - (as in hallelUJah) tuj CXI-uj TI-uj.
aux - (as in cOW) AN-taux LAUX-bo fraux-LI-no KAUX-zi auxs- KUL-tu
eux - (like ehw) Eux-RO-po neux-ral-GI-o Eux-kar-IS-to
c - (= ts biTS) CE-lo fa-CI-la (=FA-TSEE-LA) be-LE-co (BE-LE-TSO)
ofi-CI-ro PA-co ci-ko-NI-o CO-lo.
cx - (= tch maTCH) cxu ecx cxe CXAM-bro CXER-pi TRAN-cxi RI-cxa.
g - (as in Good) LON-ga LE-gi ge-NU-o GEN-to GLI-ti GRO-so.
gx - (as in Gem) GXE-mi gxis gxar-DE-no SA-gxa MAN-gxi RE-gxo.
h - (breathed) HA-ro hi-RUN-do ha-RIN-go his-to-RI-o he-DE-ro
hx - (in throat) hxe-MI-o hxo-LE-ro me-hxa-NI-ko E-hxo hxa-O-so.
j - (like y) JU-na ma-JES-ta sin-JO-ro ka-JE-ro jes ja.
jx - (= zh) bon-AJX-o JXE-ti jxur-NA-lo jxus JXAUX-do jxa-LU-zo.
s - (ss) SU-per ses STA-ri trans ves-PE-ro SVIN-gi.
sx - (sh) FRE-sxa SXE-lo KU-sxi SXTU-po SXVI-ti SXVE-li.
kz - ek-ZER-co ek-ZEM-plo ek-za-ME-no ek-ze-KU-ti ek-ZI-li
kv - kvar kvin kvi-E-ta KVAN-kam KVER-ko KVA-zaux.
gv - GVI-di LIN-gvo.
kn - KNA-bo KNE-di.
sc - (sts) SCI-o (sts-ee-o) SCE-no (stse-no) SCEP-tro eks-CI-ti
(eks-TSEE-tee) eks-cel-EN-co (eks-tsel-EN-tso) sci-EN-co
CEN-to SEN-to; CE-lo SE-lo SXE-lo; CO-lo KO-lo; ci cxi; ec ecx;
KRU-co KRU-cxo; PA-go PA-gxo; RE-gi RE-gxi; SE-gi SE-gxo; HO-ro
HXO-ro; PE-si PE-zi; STE-lo SXTE-lo; SAN-go SXAN-go; VER-so VER-sxi;
dis-I-ri dis-SXI-ri; GUS-ta GXUS-ta; STU-po SXTU-po; STA-lo SXTA-lo;
POS-to POSX-to; re-SER-vi re-ZER-vi; ru-GXI-gi ru-CXI-gxi; ri-CXI-gi
ri-CXI-gxi ri-CXE-co; FTI-zo.
a-E-ro oce-A-no fe-I-no GXU-i pe-RE-i pe-RE-u; fo-I-ro
CXI-u-JA-ra VO-joj tro-U-zi for-RAM-pi ku-I-ri; SKVA-mo
zo-o-lo-GI-o en-U-i de-TRU-u SXPRU-ci ru-I-ni; Jan-u-A-ro
Feb-ru-A-ro li-E-no ho-DI-aux hi-E-raux Hun-gar-U-jo Ne-a-PO-lo
* * * * *
NOTE.--A useful mnemonic for the Esperanto vowels is pAr pEAr pIEr
pORe pOOr but the sounds should not be dragged. It is helpful to note
that the English words "mate reign pane bend; meet beat feel lady;
grow loan soft; mute yes mule" (as pronounced in London and South of
England) would be written in Esperanto thus:--"mejt rejn pejn bend;
mijt bijt fijl lejdi; groux louxn soft; mjut jes mjul".
In Esperanto a word generally consists of an unchanging part or root
which expresses the idea and an ending which shows the use of the word
that is whether it is a name a describing word etc. By changing the
ending the use of the word is changed.
Notice carefully the words given below which end in "o". It will be seen
that they are all names.
In Esperanto every name ends in "o".
(In Grammar names are called NOUNS).
Notice further the words which end in "-as." They all express doing or
being (action or state) which is going on at the present time or which
is a custom at the present time.
The words "a" "an" are not expressed; "the" is translated by "la".
pAtro : father. cxAmbro : room.
frAto : brother. fenEstro : window.
fIlo : son. lIbro : book.
TeodOro :Theodore. krajOno : pencil.
tajlOro : tailor. plUmo : pen.
leOno : lion. cxapElo : hat.
bEsto : animal. dOmo : house.
kolOmbo : pigeon. Arbo : tree.
bIrdo : bird.
rOzo : rose. Estas : is are am.
flOro : flower. apartEnas : belongs.
pOmo : apple. brIlas : shines.
sUno : sun. kUsxas : lies.
tEro : earth ground. stAras : stands.
sxtOno : stone.
la : the. de : of from.
kaj : and. kIe : where.
jes : yes. kIo : what thing.
ne : no not. jen Estas : here is.
al : to towards. cxu : whether (asks a question).
sur : on. Antaux : before in front of.
en : in.
Apud : by near beside.
(The [UPPERCASE] shows the accented syllable).
Patro kaj frato. Leono estas besto. Rozo estas floro kaj kolombo estas
birdo. La rozo apartenas al Teodoro. La suno brilas. La patro estas
tajloro. Kie estas la libro kaj la krajono? Jen estas pomo. Sur la tero
kusxas sxtono. Sur la fenestro kusxas krajono kaj plumo. La filo staras
apud la patro. Jen kusxas la cxapelo de la patro. La patro estas en la
cxambro. Antaux la domo staras arbo.
Kio estas leono? Kio estas rozo? Kio brilas? Kio estas la patro? Kie
estas la patro? Kio estas sur la fenestro? Kie estas la plumo?
Cxu leono estas besto? Jes leono estas besto. Cxu rozo estas birdo? Ne
rozo ne estas birdo rozo estas floro.
Every "describing" word that is every word which tells the kind or
quality of a person or thing ends in "a" as "granda" large; "rugxa"
(A describing word is called an ADJECTIVE).
bEla : beautiful. jUna : young.
blAnka : white. matUra : mature ripe.
blUa : blue. nOva : new.
bOna : good. nUtra : nutritious.
fidEla : faithful. pUra : pure clean.
fOrta : strong. rIcxa : rich.
frEsxa : fresh. sAna : well (healthy).
cxiElo : sky heaven. nEgxo : snow.
fEsto : holiday. pAno : bread.
frauxlIno : maiden lady Miss papEro : paper.
hOmo : man (human being). tAblo : table.
hUndo : dog. vIno : wine.
infAno : child. Onklo : uncle.
JohAno : John. pli : more.
kajEro : exercise book. ol : than.
lAkto : milk. sed : but.
mAno : hand. tre : very.
La patro estas sana. Infano ne estas matura homo. La cxielo estas blua.
Leono estas forta. La patro estas bona. La mano de Johano estas pura.
Papero estas blanka. Blanka papero kusxas sur la tablo. Jen estas la
kajero de la juna frauxlino. Sur la cxielo staras la bela suno. La
papero estas tre blanka sed la negxo estas pli blanka. Lakto estas pli
nutra ol vino. La pano estas fresxa. La onklo estas pli ricxa ol la
frato. Jen kusxas rugxa rozo. La hundo estas tre fidela. La libro estas
When the name (noun) is required to denote more than one of the persons
or things for which it stands "j" is added to it as "rozoj" roses;
"kolomboj" pigeons; and then every "describing" word (adjective) which
belongs to it must also have "j" as "rugxaj rozoj" red roses; "la